Chlamydia is a common sexually transmitted disease in humans caused by the bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis. The term Chlamydia also refers to infection caused by any species of the Chlamydiaceae family. C. trachomatis is found only in humans. Chlamydia is one of the causes of bacterial genital infections and eye disease. Chlamydia infection is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections in the world; It is estimated that about 1 million individuals in the United States are infected with chlamydia.
C. trachomatis found in nature only lives in human cells. Chlamydia is spread primarily through unprotected sex, such as vaginal, anal, or oral sex, and chlamydia can also be passed from mother to child during childbirth. Between 50% and 75% of women who get chlamydia in the cervix have atypical symptoms like inflammation, so they don’t feel like they are infected. In men, infection with C. trachomatis can lead to penile urethritis, signs of a white discharge from the penis, with or without a burning sensation when urinating. Sometimes, the infection spreads to the upper genital tract in women (causes pelvic inflammatory disease) or epididymis in men (causes epididymitis). Chlamydia infection can be effectively cured with antibiotics. If left untreated, Chlamydia infection can cause reproductive problems and some serious illnesses in the short and long term. Prevention studies are being conducted in the prevention of this infection.
Chlamydia causes conjunctivitis or trachoma, which is a common cause of blindness worldwide. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that it accounted for 15% of all blind cases in 1995, but only 3.6% in 2002.
Chlamydia can be hard to spot because the early stage usually causes little or no warning signs and symptoms. When signs or symptoms do occur, they usually begin 1 to 3 weeks after having been exposed to chlamydia. Even when signs and symptoms occur, they are usually mild and pass through, making them easy to ignore.
Symptoms in women:
Chlamydia in the cervix (cervix) is a sexually transmitted infection but there are no symptoms in 50-70% of infected women. Sexually transmitted infections, vaginal, anal, or oral. About 50% of those who have asymptomatic infections who have not been discovered by the doctor will develop pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), a common term for infection of the uterus, fallopian tubes or ovaries. PID can cause scarring inside the reproductive organs, which can later cause serious complications, including chronic pelvic pain, difficulty getting pregnant, ectopic pregnancy (fallopian tubes) and complications. Other dangers of pregnancy.
Signs and symptoms of chlamydia infection may include:
– Painful urination.
– Lower stomachache.
– Vaginal discharge in women.
– Pain during sexual intercourse
Symptoms in men:
– Painful urination.
– Lower stomachache.
– Bleeding from the penis in men.
– Testicular pain in men.
See your doctor if you have discharge from your vagina or penis, have pain while urinating, or experience signs and symptoms of chlamydia. It is important to treat chlamydia before it leads to other health problems. Also, see a doctor if your sexual partner reveals that he or she has chlamydia, even if there are no symptoms. Symptoms may not occur until several weeks after infection, or do not occur.
The bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis causes chlamydia. The most common condition is sexually transmitted and other intimate contact between the genitals and the rectum area. It is also possible for a mother to spread chlamydia to her child, causing pneumonia or serious eye infection.
A bunch of other pathogenic Chlamydia trachomatis bacteria are sexually transmitted, called lymphogranuloma venereum LGV). Initial signs of LGV include genital sores, followed by fever and swollen glands in the groin area.
Chlamydia may be associated with other health problems, such as:
Immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV). Women with chlamydia are at greater risk of HIV infection than women without chlamydia.
Venereal diseases. People with chlamydia may also be at risk for other sexually transmitted infections, such as gonorrhea, syphilis and hepatitis. Your doctor may recommend testing for other sexually transmitted infections if you have chlamydia.
Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). PID is an infection of the uterus and fallopian tubes. Although it may cause no signs or symptoms, PID can damage the fallopian tubes, ovaries and uterus, including the cervix. Untreated PID can lead to abscess – in the fallopian tubes and ovaries.
Chronic pelvic pain. Untreated chlamydia can lead to chronic pelvic pain in women.
Infertility. Fallopian scars caused by chlamydia infection can lead to infertility.
Epididymitis (Epididymitis). Chlamydia infection can complicate epididymis, a coiled tube located next to each testicle. Epididymitis can cause fever, scrotal pain and swelling.
Prostatitis. The chlamydia organism can spread to the prostate. Prostatitis can cause pain during or after sex, fever and chills, painful urination and back pain.
Rectal inflammation. If involved in anal sex, chlamydia organisms can cause rectal inflammation. This can lead to rectal pain and mucus discharge.
Eye infection. Touching your eyes with infectious hands can cause eye infections, such as conjunctivitis. Left untreated, an eye infection can lead to blindness.
Infection in the newborn. Chlamydia infection can be passed from the vaginal canal to your baby during delivery, causing pneumonia or an eye infection that can lead to blindness.
Tests and diagnosis
Because of the chances of other health problems if you have chlamydia, ask your doctor regularly, chlamydia should be tested if you are at risk. The Centers for Disease Control recommends chlamydia screening for:
Sexually active women age 24 or younger. The incidence of chlamydia is the highest in this group, so an annual screening is recommended. Even if it has been tested in the past year, it is tested when there is a new sex partner.
Pregnant women. Chlamydia should be tested during the first prenatal checkup. If there is a high risk of infection from changing partners or partners who are frequently infected, test again after pregnancy.
Women and men are at high risk. Consider regular testing for chlamydia if you have multiple sex partners or if not always use condoms during sex. There is a high risk of having another sexually transmitted infection and being able to contact any STD through an infected partner.
Screening and diagnosing chlamydia is relatively simple. Tests include:
For women, the doctor may use a swab taken from the cervix as the test antigen for chlamydia. This can be done at the same time when your doctor has a routine Pap test. For men, the doctor may insert a thin cotton swab at the end of the penis to get a sample from the urethra. In some cases, the doctor may take an anus from the anus to check for the presence of chlamydia.
Urine test. A lab-tested urine sample may indicate the presence of this infection.
Treatments and drugs
Doctors treat chlamydia antibiotics like azithromycin, doxycycline or erythromycin. Doctors usually prescribe antibiotics in the form of pills. You may have to take your medicine in a single dose, or several days a year to 10 days.
In most cases, the infection resolves within 1-2 weeks. During that time sex should be avoided.
Sex partners or partners also need treatment even if they may have no signs or symptoms. Otherwise, the infection may recur and may return with chlamydia.
The surest way to prevent chlamydia infection is to avoid sexual activities and possibly:
Use condom. Using male condoms or female condoms during sex. The right condom use during every sexual encounter will reduce but does not eliminate the risk of infection.
Limit the number of sexual partners. Having multiple sexual partners puts you at a higher risk for chlamydia and other sexually transmitted diseases.
Regular checkups for sexually transmitted diseases. If you are having sex, especially if you have many partners, talk to your doctor about how often you should be tested for chlamydia and other sexually transmitted diseases.
Avoid douching. Women should not douche because it reduces the amount of good bacteria present in the vagina, which can increase the risk of infection.