1. What is HPV?

Is a human papilloma virus called HPV. HPV is the most common sexually transmitted disease in the world today. It is very likely that you will have the HPV virus in your lifetime without any signs or symptoms.

In fact, if you’re lucky you probably won’t have a problem with all HPV viruses, but you need to know that some strains of the HPV virus are considered “low risk” and can cause genital warts. genitals and anus. In other strains it is considered “high risk” and may cause precancerous lesions of the cervix, anus and other genitals.

2. How many strains of HPV virus are there ?

There are more than 100 strains of the HPV virus . Most strains are harmless, have no signs or symptoms and will go away on their own.

There are more than 40 strains of HPV transmitted sexually that affect the genitals and anus, some low-risk strains can cause warts and warts on the feet (warts on the soles of the feet. foot).

There are 15 strains of the virus HPV high risk (such as race 16 and race 18) they can cause precancerous lesions, cervical cancer as well as anal cancer and genital cancers other.

 3. How is HPV spread?

       The HPV virus can be transmitted to anyone who has ever had sex. Spreads through skin-to-skin contact, contact with the penis, uterus, vagina, anus of infected people. Kissing or touching the partner’s genitals orally can also transmit the HPV virus .

Using condoms is the best protection for sexually transmitted diseases. In fact, condoms cannot cover the entire skin surface around the genitals and anus, so they do not provide complete protection from HPV.

HPV is not related to HIV (the virus that causes human immunity that can cause AIDS). However, people with HIV have reduced the generation t amalgams immunity and is capable of spreading infection is higher than with other bacteria, including one or more strains of HPV.

        HPV does not depend on the number of lovers. A person can still get HPV even if they only have sex with one partner. The risk of infection is higher than not only HPV but also other sexually transmitted diseases if you have multiple sex partners.

        The symptoms may not appear immediately. May only manifest after years of sexual contact with an infected person. Therefore, it is impossible to determine exactly when the infection was .

 4. How long does HPV last in the body?

          The virus lasts a lifetime in an infected person even when the person is not sick or is being treated symptomatically. Usually, the body fights the virus itself before health problems can occur. But if it does not fight , the virus will turn normal cells into abnormal causing cancer to patients.

5 . What diseases can HPV cause?

HPV is the main cause of cervical cancer and many other cancers such as anal, vulva, vaginal, and penile cancer. HPV can also cause cancer in the back of the throat, including under the tongue and tonsils.  

Cancer usually occurs every year, even decades, after HPV. The types of HPV that can cause genital warts are not the same as the types of HPV that can cause cancer.  

5 .1. Genital warts

As a sexually transmitted disease, caused by Human Papillomavirus (HPV), there is a link between pertussis and HPV. Incubation period is from 1 to 3 months, and can be longer from several months to 1 year. The most expensive age group is from 20-45 years old. The incidence is higher in women than in men.

The causative agent is virus of PAPOVA type 6, 11 most common. HPV types 16, 18, 31, 33 and 35 are often associated with dysplasia or cervical cancer.

The main route of transmission is through sexual contact, discharge or skin contact. In newborns, transmission can occur during birth. The risk factors are due to poor hygiene, often wet genitals, long foreskin, vaginitis, immunodeficiency, most associated with other venereal diseases.

The main precautionary measure is the use of HPV vaccine . Currently, the Gardasil quadrivalent vaccine against HPV types 6, 11, 16 and 18 for women aged 9-26 can prevent genital warts caused by 2 strains of HPV 6 and 11. 

5 .2. Cervical cancer

The HPV virus can cause cervical cancer

Cervical cancer affects health, work and married life. This disease can deprive a woman of her motherhood. Patients can cure, preserve motherhood, if detected early. 

To prevent disease, women aged 9-26, whether or not they have had sex, can get vaccinated against high-risk HPV strains. After this age, should have a safe sex life; routine gynecological exams; In particular, cervical cancer often develops dullly for a long time, so women are often subjective in the treatment of the disease. On average, the process from being infected with the HPV virus to developing into cervical cancer takes 10 – 15 years.  

5 .3. Anal cancer

Anal cancer is a malignancy that arises from the anus. Anal cancer differs from colorectal cancers, from etiology, risk factors, clinical progression and treatment.

The types of anal cancer are squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, lymphoma, melanoma or basaloid carcinoma.

5 .4. Vulvar cancer

HPV is one of the factors closely related to this disease, just behind age. The average age of getting sick is 65 years old.

Vulvar cancer is a cancer that occurs on the outer surface of the female genital organs. The vulva is the area of ​​skin surrounding the urethra and vagina, including the clitoris and small lips. The most common forms of vulvar cancer are: lumps or ulcers that cause pain and / and itching. The incidence of the disease is lower than other gynecological cancers. 

Vulvar cancer has 2 types : vulvar squamous cell cancer and vulvar melanoma.

Patients often go to the doctor with signs and symptoms such as itching, pain, bleeding, vulvar abnormalities, changes in the color or thickening of the vulva in the vulva, tumor lesions or warts.

5 .5. Cancer of the pharynx

Throat cancer may be caused by the HPV virus

Recent studies have demonstrated that vaccines against human papilloma virus (HPV) types 16 and 18, used to prevent cervical cancer, may also protect the body from oral HPV infection. , of which most are viruses that cause cancers of the oropharynx and tonsils.

5 .6. Penile cancer

Penile cancer is a relatively uncommon disease. No circumcision and exposure to HPV are the main risk factors.Another risk factor is a history of genital warts, which is often the result of HPV infection – the most common cancer virus causing genital warts. and usually the source of squamous cell carcinoma of the penis as well as cervical cancer in women. HPV can be detected in 30-50% of penile carcinoma cases. 

Anyone who has sex can get HPV, even if only one person is involved. It is also difficult to know when a person is infected, because often the symptoms of the disease years after infection appear.

6 . How to avoid getting HPV?

Vaccines are the most effective way to prevent disease today. The vaccine is given to people aged 11 to 26 years old.

– For women: The vaccine is given to girls aged 11-12 years but can also be used for 26-year-old women who have never been vaccinated or have not fully vaccinated as a child.

– For men: The vaccine is given to boys aged 11-12 years old and can also be used for 21-year-old men if the vaccine has not been given any time or has not received the full dose of vaccine at a young age. The vaccine is also recommended for 26-year-old men who have sex with men or have a weak immune system.

Safe sex is also a way to prevent disease. Using condoms the right way can reduce the risk of getting HPV. However, HPV can also enter genital areas in areas where condoms cannot be covered. Doing this can reduce the risk of disease but is not thorough.

Maintain a monogamous relationship. A healthy relationship and minimizing sexual partners is a good way to prevent HPV.

7. Can HPV be cured?

Currently, medicine has not found a way to completely cure the disease. The symptoms of illness such as:

  – Acne at the genital organs or extremities: the disease can be cured by prescription prescribed by your doctor. The most important thing is to explain clearly the symptoms you are having.

– Pre-cervical cancer: Pap tests and periodic health checks.  

– Other cancers: are also better treated if detected early. There is no other way but to have regular health checkups and tests necessary for the diagnosis.

8. How can I find out if I have HPV?

There is no test to determine the level of HPV infection of an infected person, but only the HPV test to screen for cervical cancer. The test should only be done in women over 30 years old. Women can know the disease if they have abnormal Pap test results. Many people know only when serious symptoms occur.

Relationship between HPV and cervical cancer

1 . What is cancer ? 

Cancer is a term for malignant, uncontrolled growth of cells and tissues.

Cancer has a growth shape like a tumor, can invade neighborhoods, remote areas of the body, compete for nutrients, oxygen and destroy normal tissues.

Metastasis occurs when small groups of cells separate from the original tumor, move to other locations through the bloodstream and lymph nodes, and then begin to form new cancerous masses similar to those found in the tumor. Root tumor.

2 . The development of cervical cancer .

One of the causes of squamous cell carcinoma is persistent or chronic infection with one or more strains of human papilloma virus (HPV) in the high-risk virus group and cause cancer.

The most common types of HPV that cause cancer are HPV16 and HPV18, found in 70% of all cervical cancer cases. Other types of HPV that cause cancer, such as HPV31, 33, 45, and 58, are less common and may have different rates of infection in different geographical areas.

The low-risk types are HPV6 and HPV11, which are not linked to cancer, but cause genital warts. Risk factors for HPV infection for both men and women are known to have sex, the age at which they start having sex, having multiple sex partners, having sex with multiple partners. High-risk HPV infection is most common among young women, with the highest rate being 25-30% among women under the age of 25. According to reports, this rate decreases with age. 

Although high-risk HPV infection is a major cause of cervical cancer, most women with high-risk HPV infection often do not develop cancer. Regardless of the HPV strain, the HPV infection usually occurs on a woman’s body in a short time.

Only a very small percentage of HPV infections are likely to progress to precancerous or invasive lesions. The conditions or risk factors for HPV infection that persist and progress to cancer are not well understood, but they play a very important role. High risk factors include :

3 . Factors associated with HPV infection

          – Types of viruses

          – Co-infection with some strains of HPV that cause cancer

          – Too many viruses

          – Atopic factors (people infected with HPV)

       -Immune status: People with pre-existing immunodeficiency (caused by HIV infection) have more persistent HPV infection , faster cancer progression and pre-cancer.

4. External factors

– Smoke

– Co-infection with HIV or other sexually transmitted infections such as herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) , Chlamydia trachomatisand Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

– Using birth control pills for a long time (> 5 years).

Long-term use of oral contraceptives is a risk factor for many studies. Since there were recommendations that women should limit the use of birth control pills, these recommendations have had a certain impact on the current contraceptive options resulting in an increased pregnancy rate. Unintended, unsafe abortion and maternal mortality recently.

A team of experts from the World Health Organization examined scientific evidence and concluded that all contraceptives, including oral contraceptives, have benefits and risks. 

For cervical cancer, the benefits of oral contraceptives outweigh the risks, because the incidence of cervical cancer from the use of oral contraceptives is very low, so the choice of contraceptive use in women is not prevented and discouraged use.

Cervical cancer is the most common cancer caused by HPV










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