The concept of prenatal screening test
According to research by the World Health Organization (WHO), the rate of birth defects in newborns is 1.73%, meaning that every year, the world has about 8 million babies born with at least one birth defect. born. In Vietnam, according to statistics of the Ministry of Health, every year, around 1.5 million babies are born in the country, of which: about 1,400-1,800 children with Down syndrome (Trisomy 21); 200-250 children with Edwards syndrome (Trisomy 18); 1,000-1,500 children with neural tube defects; about 2,200 children with Thalassemia disease (congenital hemolytic disease) are serious and there are many genetic diseases, other birth defects. Many causes lead to such conditions as chromosomal abnormalities, gene disorders, metabolic disorders, etc. In particular, many defects can be detected and intervened early through prenatal and neonatal screening. Therefore, prenatal screening is necessary to screen and help identify the risk of birth defects from the unborn child.
One of the pre – natal screening methods that are being applied in the country is now a genetic diagnosis of pre – invasive truyền.
Other than lấn, gai thiết. Could cause a miscarriage of 1 / 500, with this technique the analysis uses only 7 – 10 ml of fetus’ blood to test for mutation screening and early detection of congenital defects to the fetus. This method can be implemented from the 10th week of pregnancy, for accurate results to 99. 98%. So we need to find out what the screening screen doesn’ t invade before the nipt is
First we need to understand what nipt is ?
Nipt is a pre – invasive test that does not invade the most advanced, nipt recognized by fda&clia recognition of the condition of testing and accuracy of the results of thường syndrome. The accuracy of 99, 9%, with only the mother’ s blood without having to interfere with the fetus. This type of blood contains and mother’ s freedom and the child, with modern technology, nipt can analyze the abnormalities of the chromosomes, such as too much or too little chromosome in the fetus.
Which pregnant women do nipt tests?
All pregnant mothers should carry out screening before the nipt. Especially the high – risk pregnant mothers:
– Pregnant woman over 35.
– Pegnant pregnant women have multiple miscarriages or dead pregnancies, the first one is deformed.
– Tere’ s an abnormal ultrasound result, gáy on 3. 0mm. Ultrasound sees short – nosed bones, chậm,.. xương.
– Double test / triple test and ultrasound results.
– The history of genetic disease from the family of (đời parents, grandparents, chồng) related to chromosome mutations.
– Do the ivf technique or set
– Pregnant women and virus when pregnant
– Pregnant women work in the environment in contact with chemicals, radioactive substances, high doses of toxic substances.
– Pregnant women have abnormal signs such as nề, hypertension, vaginal bleeding, excessive fluids or too little, bụng…
However, there are a number of non – performing cases that are: patient blood transfusion, organ transplant, stem cell treatment, clotting treatment with heparin within a year from the day of the test and the dual – disappearing pregnancy syndrome (vanishing twin)
The advantage of the nipt method
Compared to classical methods, nipt tests for more accurate results are limited to the maximum ratio of pregnant pregnant mothers to the risk of accessing hidden capital.
The advantages of this approach are:
– It can be done from very early: the 10th pregnancy
– Not to eat
– Absolute safety: tests on mother’ s blood, from 7 – 10 ml.
– The accuracy of 99, 9%
– Control and detection of syndrome related to children’ s chromosomes in common.
– Quickly: there’ s only five – after 7 days
What does the nipt test mean?
There are three nipt results
- positive / high – risk / detection:this result means that the result of a fetus is likely to be able to bring the sát sát to the doctor who will advise you on the results and direction of the invasive testing services, such as the ối.
- low – risk / low – risk / non – hiện: your fetus is safe for chromosome abnormalities, but you have to monitor periodically with ultrasound to track the form of the fetus.
- failing to conclude / without any deviation / suspicion: results of testing cannot be made or cannot be parsed on => blood samples in this case. Because the fetal dna increases according to the number of weeks of pregnancy, the second blood collection will get more free dna dna to analyze.